History of Tajikistan
Tajiks are one of the most ancient
nations of the world. Life in area situated at the main crossroads of eastern civilizations has given them continuous access to the achievements of other cultures. First settlement on the territory of today's Tajikistan
date back to the end of upper Paleolithic period (15-20 thousand years ago). Archaeological finds, the works of Herodotus and other written evidence provide information on trading relations, customs, and rituals of the nation. For many centuries the country, involved mainly in trading with neighbors suffered from foreign invasions by the troops of Alexander the Great, steppe nomads, Arabs and Tatar-Mongols.
The first Tajik state emerged in 892, providing independence from the Arab Khalif. The development, which began in the Samonid epoch, was characterized by the restoration and fortification of war-ravaged cities and greater attention to culture, art and architecture. Samanid state brought to the world the most famous scientists and philosophers – Abu Ali-ibn-Sina (known in the west as Avicenna). Tajiks also honor Firdausi, a poet and composer of the Shah-nameh (Book of Kings), the Persian national epic, and Omar Khayyam.
In October 1924 Tajikistan
became an Autonomous Republic of the Soviet Union, and in 1929 a Union Republic. After the collapse of the Soviet Union Tajikistan
chose to create a sovereign, democratic, secular, constitutional state, and declared its independence on September 9, 1991.