Ferghana: Travel Attractions, Tours to Ferghana
Fergana, city in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley. Fergana is about 420 km east of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, and about 75 km west of Andijan. Fergana has been a center for oil production in the Fergana Valley since the region's first oil refinery was built near the city in 1908. Since then more refineries have been added, and Fergana is one of the most important centers of oil production and refining in Uzbekistan. Natural gas from western Uzbekistan is transported by pipeline to the valley, where it is used to produce fertilizer. The Fergana Valley was the most important irrigated-cotton region of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Cotton growing and processing has been the dominant economic activity here for centuries, supplied by water from small streams flowing from the surrounding mountains. The Great Fergana Canal, built almost entirely by hand during the 1930s, passes through the northern part of the city. Fergana was founded as a garrison town by the Russians after they captured the khanate of Kokand. It was first named New Margelan (Margelan is an old Islamic town nearby), then renamed Skobelev in 1907 after the Russian in charge of the capture of Kokand. It has been called Fergana since 1924. Population (1994) 191,000.
The picturesque Ferghana Valley is located in the eastern part of Uzbekistan. It is the most densely populated region of Uzbekistan, with almost a third of the country's population. The diamond-shaped valley is 300 km from east to west and 170 km from north to south.
The mild climate of the Ferghana Valley allows for a vegetation period of 240 days per year. The primary emphasis on the production of cotton, silk and other agricultural crops has turned a large part of the valley into an oasis.
Nearly 25,000 sg. km of fertile land, the great oasis surrounded by Kuramin mountain ridge in the North-West, Chatkal mountain ridge in the North, Ferghana mountain ridge in the East, and Alai and Turkestan ridges in the South. There is scarcely a hectare of uncultivated land, the primary crop being cotton. In ancient times the exceptional flora of the region gave Ferghana Valley the name "Golden Valley".
The Ferghana Valley is divided into five regions: Ferghana, Andijan, Namangan, Khojand (located in Tajikistan) and Osh (located in Kyrgyzstan).
The Ferghana Valley is rich a number of natural resources, including gold, oil, copper and other raw materials. The Sirdarya, one of the great rivers of Central Asia, runs across the valley. It is fed by more than 70 mountain streams. However most of these streams are diverted for irrigation purposes and do not reach the Sirdarya.
Nature exhibit is devoted to the wildlife of the area. Birds, including seagulls, pheasants and crows are plentiful on the shores of the Sirdarya. The mountains are home to birds of prey, as well as bears, foxes, wolves, jackals, porcupines, badgers and red groundhogs. Several animals in Uzbekistan are included in the "Red Book", a world–wide list of animals in danger of extinction which was completed in 1980. It is illegal to hunt these animals. First ancient settlements in Ferghana Valley appeared 5-6 thousand years ago. It's assumed that Ferghana of the 6thc.-4thc. BC was in cultural relations with South and South-Western civilizations.
The valley's richness includes its thousands-of-years-old history and traditions of master craftsmen in silk, ceramics, woodcarving and a bounty of other ancient arts of man.
-In the 2ndc. BC the Great Silk Road connecting China and Mediterranean countries ran through Fergana. -In the 2ndc. BC it was called Ershi and was the ancient capital of Davan; there was the embassy of the Chinese emperor Udi who signed agreement on opening the Great Silk Road. -In the 2ndc. BC discord with China caused the war between China and Davan. -In the 2nd - 4thc. a part of Fergana Valley was in Kushan Kingdom. -In the 7thc.- 8thc. Fergana Valley was conquered by Arabs. -In 715 Kuteiba-lbn-Muslim, the conquerer of ancient Sogd and Khorezm towns, governor of Khorasan and Khorezm was killed near the town Kasan. -In the 8thc.- 9thc. the Samanids came to power over Fergana Valley. -In the 9thc. - 11thc. the town Akhsikent became the capital of Fergana where production of high-quality steel had been developed by that time. -In the beginning of the 12thc. the valley was devastated during the Mongolian invasion. -In the 14thc. the Temurids came to power over the Valley; Fergana became the favorite holiday place of Tamerlane. -In the 16thc. the town Andijan became the capital of Fergana Valley during the reign of Babur. -In the 16thc. Sheibani-khan annexed the Valley to the Uzbek state. -In 1700 the Sheibanids were dethroned; Kokand became the capital of the new state. -In the 18thc. Fergana Valley formed the new independent Kokand Khanate. -In 1875 Kokand Khanate as Fergana Region was Annexed to tsarist Russia. -Following the revolution of 1917 according to the ethnic demarcation in 1924 the territory of Fergana Valley was divided among Uzbek, Tadjik, and Kirghiz Soviet Republics; the three regions of Fergana, Andijan, and Namangan were given to Uzbekistan.